Graphene is a translucent carbon allotrope that has 2D properties; the carbon atoms present in this material are thickly packed in acommon atomic scale that displays a strong hexagonal design. Graphene’s hexagonal lattice form can be considered as a double triangular interleaving lattice which has been successfully used for computing the band structure for one graphite layer by taking advantage of a firmly bonded approximation.
Molecular Graphene Structure
Combined graphite in single layers that measure just one atom thick is called graphene; each of these molecules display a full planar shape while a single graphene sheet is considered to be one molecule. Due to the strength and durability of covalent bonds amid carbon atoms, graphene has increased tensile power – tensile which presents the capacity of how much one can stretch something before it ruptures. Moreover, unlike nanotube or buckyball, graphene has no volume since it is flat and leveled.
Nanotubes as well as buckyballs (Buckminsterfullerene) all have their atoms settled on the surface allowing these to only interact with molecules that surround them. As for graphene, all of its atoms are also on the surface but can be easily accessed from both sides, allowing more interaction between the molecules that surround it. Amazingly, graphene can easily repair holes accumulated in its sheets when being exposed to molecules that are incorporatedinto carbon like hydrocarbons. Infused with pure and authentic carbon atoms, these atoms align and coordinate perfectly into hexagonal patterns until all the holes are completely filled.
Electronic Graphene Structure
Graphene has an extraordinarily notable framework because of its crystal-like structure and the carbon atoms present form a hexagonal lattice on 2D planes. Each of these atoms have four bonds where one is a σ bond with three elements close to it while the other π-bond is oriented out of the plane.
The graphene structureis identical with the atoms of carbon that are connected in hexagonal shapes to structure carbon nanotubes; however, graphene is not cylindrical and instead, is flat. The bands are the ones accountable for almost all of graphene’s distinct electronic properties. Band formation and structure is commonly studied from a certain standpoint between the momentum and energy of electrons with a specific material; and because graphene restrains the movement of electrons in two dimensions, our momentum space is constrained into two dimensions as well.
The speed of electrons when voltage is applied is called electron mobility which is one of the most important electrical properties of graphene. Its electron mobility is much faster compared to other known materials which is why researchers are attempting to create various methods to create transistors on graphene that would make these devices faster compared to transistors that are created on silicon wafers.
Interestingly unique graphene applicationsare currently being developed since they are able to take advantage of the extremely thin sheet which is only as thick as a carbon atom. It has also been discovered that nanopores can be used to analyze the DNA structure while another application being developed will be used to improve and further enhance the quality of energy storages like supercapacitors, solar cells, and graphene batteries as well.