What is Graphene? : An In-depth Look into Graphene
What is Graphene and why is there a lot of attention given to it? Graphene for those who are not so familiar with this material is a two dimensional honeycomb shaped carbon atom. Graphene properties made this material special. When it was first introduce and the Nobel Committee award was given to a group of researchers in the field of Physics this captured the attention of the world. These graphene research started people talking about this carbon based atom material. The properties of graphene that made this material stand out includes: graphene strength, flexibility and conductivity.
In terms of structural level, this material is compose of thin sheets of carbon making it appear two dimensional but, surprisingly it is the properties of graphene being thin and light that won admirers the world over. Because of graphene strength this material the proposed ways to create graphene products out of this material were to the point of being outlandish and out of this world. Imagine the presence of Golden Gate Bridge and how it was thought to be a fantastic but unfeasible dream to build it but, they did. Some people at this time might just be curious as to what graphene properties can affect the world in general. Graphene strength takes more than 100 times as much pressure to break a string of graphene. This is one of its predominant traits a good example of its strength in pure form. This can certainly support some interesting new structures.
Because of its tensile strength alone this graphene material can fold and stretch with ease. Some even compared that this can stretch all the way to space without shattering. Some people might compared this graphene material as an every engineer’s dream. Imagine what engineers can build thanks to these properties of graphene. Even if this graphene material is strong this remains transparent. Because of these graphene properties, graphene research is thinking of ways to produce new graphene products out of this material. The recent issue is more on how much graphene cost it would sum up to by producing just one of these graphene products alone.
What is Graphene?
What is graphene? To give a simple answer it is the same material found in pencils. It is the graphite carbon material that makes pencils a piece of writing instrument. What is graphene? This material is said to be thinner than a single human hair. According to graphene research this material cannot be seen without the help of a microscope. The amazing thing about graphene band structure is that this material is flexible, stretchable, fire resistant and an excellent conductor.
People are not as familiar with graphene as others are. So far those who are into graphene research and those that are working on developing this product are the ones who knows what is graphene. One of the graphene properties that stands out is that this material is a good conductor of heat and electricity. Since this material is compose of a single atom thick this means those who are in the electronics industry are interested on how they can use graphene to construct anything miniature. Graphene band structure has zero band gap this means this can also make a great electrode for solar cells.
What is graphene? Some say that if this material is place in the stock market this can generate a lot of interest especially from those who want see its potential. What is graphene? If this material is sold as stock this would whet the appetites of those who are planning to invest into something new and potentially able to produce new products just from the use of one material alone. Learn what is graphene and what it is not so that the next time this material becomes the main topic for parties or events, stop being caught uninformed on what’s the latest as far as nano technology is concern.
Even if scientist were already aware of what is graphene and that it does exists the challenge face by scientist is how to extract and isolate this material from graphite. The graphene properties is what makes it that useful. This material is capable of changing life as it is known. Imagine of the potential ramifications of using graphene nanoribbons. The opportunities are simply limitless. Suffice to say that from graphene manufacturers’ point of view there are a lot of industries that will be affected because of this material. The good news is that even government is on board to support graphene manufacturers and researchers. The government can see that this scientific discovery is the key to produce thousands of new jobs and additional source of revenues both now and in ther future.
There are a lot of exciting advancements in the field of science however, none has generated this much enthusiasm and excitement as the substance better known as graphene. This material has many interesting light related, water related properties. By 2013, even the American Society of Mechanical Engineers was all praises for graphene production as one of what they consider as the top five trends in mechanical engineering.
There is simply no new form of carbon that can offer something better than this material. Black chunks of coal can be describe as graphene nanoribbons. This might sound high tech but, actually graphene nanoribbons is the right way to describe these graphene properties. What is graphene? This material look like black chunks of coal. After this material was discovered researchers are still interested to delve more into what carbon can do. For the time being, the flavor of the decade has got to be these graphene band structure compose of graphene nanoribbons. Even carbon nanotubes are still hot favorites of researchers and this scientific community especially those that are pro graphene.
Properties of Graphene
There are certain graphene properties that makes this material suitable for quantum computing. Researchers found out that under extremely powerful magnetic field and very low temperature graphene can effectively filter electrons even at the direction of their spin. The current traditional electronic system cannot do this. As a result, an extraordinary conductor along the edge was created which is virtually a one dimensional wire. This separation of electrons according to spin might be a normal feature of topological insulators but graphene is not this kind of insulator, however scientist was able to do the same effect using a different material like this.
By creating a varying magnetic field, these can turn edge states on and off. An effect of this switching capability in theory is that these can produce circuits and transistors. Another advantage of this selective spinning is that it prevents backscattering that normally would interrupt the electron motion. The results, material that would normally ruin the electronic properties of the material will not have an effect on it. In case the material is considered dirty it can transmit along the edge and surprisingly do this even in a perfect manner.
Being as short of phenomenon, graphene is dubbed as graphenomenon a super material. To show that a lot of scientist and research development team are finding their latest discovery, there are more than 2000 patent applications that involves the use of this material that were granted. This number is still growing and there are other academic papers being introduce on this subject alone. Graphene is drawing a lot of attention that it is compared to the reaction to gold rush. This material has definitely captured the interest of the world ever since silicon was introduce commercially.This material is 100 percent pure carbon as simple as that. Even if this material contains pure carbon it has remarkable properties. The theory was that this material is two dimensional but the fact is that this crystal grows into three dimensional space.
Graphene Band Structure
Graphene has no band gap. This poses a challenge for researchers in order for them to develop techniques to integrate graphene into Nano electric devices. This band gap is important since this is a requirement to produce transistors. Before this material results to nanoribbons it undergoes a band structure of an infinite 2D sheet of graphene. The lack of band gap poses a problem since radio transistors needs band gap. Some view this as a constraint. As of now, researchers have find a way to work around this band gap issue. Suffice it to say that there is a lot of serious work that needs to be done.
Graphene is a sheet of carbon with 1 inch thick consistency. People call this as the miracle material of the 21st Century because it offers superior properties to any material in current use. After the discovery of graphene and the awarding of the Nobel Prize in 2010 for research this material has focus the spotlight on this graphite based material.
Research scientist at the US Department of Energy or DOE have team up with other research labs to develop a new approach for synthesizing graphene nanoribbons from pre-designed molecular building blocks. The process that these researchers have made has allowed them to build nanoribbons that can enhance properties for advance electronics. These are often abbreviated as GNRs or nano graphene ribbons. These were produce to test the edge and nanoscale size effect of graphene.
These nanoribbons are said to be great candidates for future nanoelectric technologies. Scientist are having a hard time in controlling their shape at an atomic scale. These research scientist have developed a pre-designed molecular building blocks. This process have allowed these researchers to build nanoribbons that have enhanced properties. This enhance properties is useful for building the next generation electronic circuitry.
Research scientist wants to understand the exotic properties that result to assemble these molecular structures so that they can build a new functional device. These researchers have taken different routes to produce the shape that they are after in terms of nanoribbons. The major question is to build useful devices from these minute structures. Suffice to say that the use of this new type of nanoribbon is eventually to create to produce a new device elements.
The top five industries that target the production of graphene is in Life Sciences for medical device, electronics TV, chemical biosensors, smart phone and smart pad and desalinization membranes. It is safe to say that the only thing that can limit these new discoveries is simply human imagination. Graphene is use to create synthetic blood or even kill cancer. Such diversity means there are lots of manufacturers that will benefit when this material is produce for commercial purpose. The market is wider and the potentials greater. All of these starts when one looks at the tip of the pencil, something amazing begins.
Manufacturers are looking for ways to devote their time in finding inexpensive ways of producing this material in large quantities for use industrial uses. In raw state this material can be used to produce a wide variety of commercial goods. Even if graphene is still considered as a relatively new material, a lot of companies are vying to adapt it. These even includes big name in electronics with the likes of such popular brands as Samsung, SanDisk, IBM, Nokie, Google and Apple. They are all trying to find ways to incorporate the use of this material into the products that they sell.
Since the market for graphene is growing, companies like those base in the United Kingdom are rapidly scaling up their research and production so that they can supply the demands for this material. In its market debut, shareholders pile to buy a chunk of Applied Graphene Materials which is the reason why they can mass produce graphene. The share prices rise to 40 percent when it was offered during its stock market debut. The good news is that AGM was able to raise 11 million pounds to mass produce the material in powder form. These are to companies like Dyson and Procter & Gamble to develop commercial uses for this material. AGM is forecasted to earn profits by 2017.
Some of the companies who reduce their holdings have find a way to reinvested in these stocks realizing that there is a potential to earn a lot of money in the very near future which is actually a few years from now. Engineers and scientist will be recruited to help manufacturing these products for commercial applications. This company has even find a way to produce graphene by using carbon atoms sourced from ethanol. The applications can be added to plastics, oils, lubricants and even resins.
Dyson for instance is planning to use this material to manufacture plastic casing for their vacuum cleaners. This can help the washing machine suck in more dust. When added to paints, graphene can protect the hulls of boats from gathering rust. Since this can also be used as dry lubricant. This will reduce drag as the ship moves through water. Even if the United Kingdom has pioneered its discovery, it is the Asian companies who are exerting efforts to commercialize it starting with big companies like Samsung who has several patents for products that are made from graphene. Research teams say that there is a need to tread carefully with graphene since even in the midst of recent developments.
Some of these companies can customize their materials based on what the customer’s order. This is clearly seen in the growing industry for printed electronics is just one area in which graphene can play an important role in the formulation of coatings or inks for effective electrical and thermal conductivity. As more and more emerging as one of the promising nanomaterial because of its unique combination of superb properties which opens a way for its exploitation by providing a wide spectrum of applications ranging from electronics, sensors, bio device and optics.
One of the qualities of graphene is that it is transparent and a good conductor. This means this material can replace electrodes in the indium like those use for touchscreens. Because of its lightness, graphene can be combined with composite materials which means this can eliminate the impact of lightning when use on aircraft fuselages. Since this material is waterproof this can be a perfect material to use for hydrogen reservoirs.
Graphene has a tremendous commercial potential because of its super absorbent and super water repellant properties. Think waterproofing materials like producing a water proof smart phone with the help of graphene. Nokia is now working on this for their future models of smartphones. Graphene has the ability to conduct heat and electricity which lend to the development of more rapidly charging batteries.
Those who plan on selling graphene believes more on the value of its characteristics. Apparently, the true value of this material lies in the wide range of applications and sectors. The mantra of this material is that it has just started at this stage and there is more properties and products that are waiting to be discovered with just a simple material such as this. Most of the descriptions and potential uses for this material is not an exaggeration. Most of the current research and development are still at work on refining the minor issues with this material.
Imagine what life could be if researchers will be able to produce transparent nontoxic brain implants. With such interesting properties and a new set of fresh applications it is worth delving deeper into researching more about graphene and what it can offer. The race is on how to find new uses for this material. These scientist can be the greatest way to break the bank.
Graphene is still experiencing growing pains at every turn. Some experts say that it will take about 20 to 40 years before they can produce this for daily living. When compared to other breakthrough materials like nylon, Kevlar and carbon fiber were used anywhere but, heavy industry. These are similar growing pains like seeing some drawbacks. For every phase of its development it has its merits but, there also exists small flaws like toxic byproducts from these materials.
Graphene has a high tensile strength. Tensile is simply explain as how much you can stretch something before its breaking point. Researchers also find out that mixing graphene with an epoxy results to the same amount of increase strength for the material as those found in carbon nanotubes. Research scientist have found out that graphene can be pushed downwards by 10 nanometres. When the results came in the record shows that graphene has a breaking strength of 55 newtons per metre.
The studies reveal that a great way to visualize the force needed to break the membranes. A good example would be to puncture a sheet of graphene as thick as that of plastic food wrap. However, in this case the required force to be able to do this simple act is about 20,000 newtons which is equivalent to the weight of a 2000 kilogram car. It is for this strength that takes graphene off the chart. Research scientist have found out that polymers to form a super strength composite. This is a result of graphene properties combination with the use of other materials.
The surprising fact about graphene is that even when this material is stitched together, graphene remains to be the strongest known material in the world. This material will still manage to retain much of their mechanical properties. This is said to be the first step in mass producing carbon nanotubes that can be use in turn to manufacture flexible electronics with stronger materials. Who knows this can even produce the first space elevator? In pure form this material is indeed strong. It can conduct heat and electricity even at such thin surface. Graphene get its strength from carbon atoms surrounded by six others in a structure that resembles that of a honeycomb like structure. The atoms are all locked firmly in place with a strong bond. This two dimensional structure allows to leave room for weakening defects that appear in the lattice.
The molecules that makes graphene priceless is approximately a few hundred dollars per kilo. The European Union or EU alone is prepared to set aside 1.3 Billion pounds to transform a range of sectors such as in the field of electronics, energy, health and construction by incorporating the use of this material. This means fresh new jobs can be expected over the next decade. By 2013, some vendors are charging as much as $60 per square inch of this material according to Forbes Magazine. As of 2014, graphene still remains a fairly expensive material to produce. Latest innovations in the production of this material has managed to reduce its price per cm.
Because of this quality integration of the material into electronics there is a need to further refine their end product so that they can bring the price down. Research companies are projecting the annual growth rate for Graphene as 60.4 percent from the period of 2012 to 2016. These figures are result of the massive spending that most of these major firms are doing to tap into this material’s attributes. Research scientist can manufacture only small quantities of pure graphene by mechanically peeling a graphite crystal. This would be enough for the purpose of research. However, for this can be quite costly and impractical when sold commercially. It is apparent that with this much cost, this product at this stage is not yet ready for mass production at a lower price.
Research are made into applications of this material in the field of medicine. The research focuses on the development of bioelectric sensors and bio imaging devices. This material can be used for DNA sequencing however, at this point there is still ongoing clinical trials for this. In connection with this, even artificial implants can be connected directly to the neural system harnessing Graphene’s conductive properties. Graphene is still tested for use to produce better spinal surgical equipment.
Graphene can be used to improve the processing power of computer chips. Out from the research and development team of IBM they were able to create a chip that is 10,000 times faster than those found on standard chips. However, this is an analog and not a digital chip because of Graphene’s band gap. In the future this research and development team will likely produce computers that are more powerful and consumes less energy.
Those who are admirers of graphene have been applauding this material’s potential to replace silicon in common electric circuitry. However, the band gap remains a challenge. Scientist are experimenting with quick charging batteries, flexible electronics, photo sensors and who knows what other applications graphene research companies will come up with?
Research teams are still developing their version of the most effective water filtration material with the help of graphene. One of this companies is Lockheed Martin which claims that their research will likely produce a water filter in development which can reduce the cost of desalination plants by as much as 99 percent. However, since this is still in research phase these are not yet available in the market today. Graphene production is still a challenge however, when it comes to Graphene Oxide this is said to be much easier and cheaper to produce. This process which is still in research stage can increase the amount of potable drinking water especially in developing countries around the world. This same process can also be used for alcohol distillation.
What is graphene? This graphite base material continues to astound and impress scientist and the world. It is obvious that there could be more that meets the eye in terms of products that will appear thanks to these graphene properties. Among the potential products created from this material is structural devices such as those used in turbine blades. Because of its size, some suggest that graphene properties is ideal for terahertz electronics. This means this material can be used for small dimension devices. One of the biggest attractions of marketing products made of graphene are the exotic profits that result that comes from selling such an exotic material. With a lot of patents added to its belt, those who invest in it desires to see as much as 60 percent return on their investment.
Clearly, the method of isolating graphene properties needs refinement and adjustment. It would be better to find a way to be able to physically manipulate techniques so as to see improvements. Thermal exfoliation can be a great alternative according to suggestions made by those who are still working tirelessly with this material. On top of this another potential product coming from this material could be graphene based quantum computer. This would be unlike ordinary computer because of its high priority computational task capability.
This material is considered to be the leading candidate for next generation high speed circuitry which affects almost anything electronics such as computers, smartphones and even television. It would be safe to say that a lot of industry are showing interest over this material. Graphene is useful and there is no doubt about it however, the big question is that how and when this shall come into fruition and at commercial levels. Some bigger companies have already taken advantage of this material by, successfully incorporating the use of this material on their products such as those produce by IBM. Graphene represents a new class of carbon nanoparticles with multifunctional properties.
The main impediment right now is the graphene cost since it is difficult to produce lower graphene cost. This concern is echoed even by graphene manufacturers. However, what is graphene and what it can bring into the table is more important than these minor issues. These questions are part of the problems often encountered by new technologies when it is about to give birth to new discoveries. One can compare this to the birthing pains of a mother before she brings a precious child into this world. Yes, there are some risks involve but, these risk is small as compared to what one can do with these graphene properties.